Types of Water purifiers in India

A Comprehensive Guide to Water Purifiers: Types, Pros, Cons, and Comparison

In a world where water pollution is becoming a growing concern, access to clean and safe drinking water is of paramount importance.

Water purifiers play a crucial role in ensuring the health and well-being of individuals and communities by removing impurities and contaminants from water.

However, with numerous options available on the market, choosing the right water purifier can be overwhelming.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the various types of water purifiers, discuss their pros and cons, and provide a helpful comparison table to assist you in making an informed decision.

Types of Water Purifiers

Following are the available water purifiers in India

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Purifiers

Reverse osmosis (RO) purifiers are among the most popular choices for households and commercial establishments.

They use a semi-permeable membrane to remove dissolved salts, heavy metals, pesticides, bacteria, and viruses from water.

The process involves applying pressure to push water through the membrane, leaving contaminants behind.


Highly effective at removing a wide range of contaminants.

Suitable for areas with high TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) levels.

Improves the taste and odor of water.

Requires minimal electricity for operation.


Wastes a significant amount of water during the purification process.

Removes essential minerals along with contaminants, leading to demineralized water.

Initial installation costs can be relatively high.

Regular maintenance is required, including membrane replacement.

Ultraviolet (UV) Purifiers

UV purifiers use ultraviolet light to disinfect water by deactivating bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.

The UV rays penetrate the microorganism’s cell walls, disrupting their DNA and rendering them harmless.


Effective at destroying a wide range of bacteria and viruses.

Does not alter the taste, color, or odor of water.

Environmentally friendly, as it does not require chemicals or produce wastewater.

Low operating cost and energy-efficient.


Does not remove dissolved impurities or contaminants.

The effectiveness depends on the clarity of the water; turbid water may reduce its efficiency.

Requires a continuous power supply to function.

Pre-filtration may be necessary to remove larger particles and sediment.

Ultrafiltration (UF) Purifiers

Ultrafiltration purifiers use a membrane with fine pores to filter out microorganisms, colloidal particles, and suspended solids from water.

It is an effective method for water purification, commonly used in combination with other technologies.


Efficiently removes bacteria, viruses, and large particles.

Retains essential minerals in water.

No electricity is required for the filtration process.

Lower cost compared to RO purifiers.


Does not remove dissolved salts and smaller contaminants.

Regular cleaning of the membrane is necessary to maintain performance.

May not be as effective as RO or UV purifiers in certain scenarios.

Not suitable for water with high TDS levels.

Activated Carbon Purifiers

Activated carbon purifiers utilize activated carbon filters to adsorb and remove impurities, chlorine, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and certain chemicals from water.

The activated carbon has a large surface area with micropores that trap and retain contaminants.


Improves taste and odor by reducing chlorine and other chemical tastes.

Removes certain organic compounds and pesticides.

Cost-effective and easy to maintain.

Does not require electricity to function.


Does not eliminate dissolved salts, minerals, or heavy metals.

Filter replacement is necessary to maintain effectiveness.

Bacteria and viruses are not effectively removed.

Limited effectiveness against some contaminants.

Gravity-Based Purifiers

Gravity-based purifiers use the force of gravity to filter water through various stages of purification.

They often combine sediment filters, activated carbon filters, and UF membranes to remove impurities.


No electricity or external pressure required.

Cost-effective and suitable for areas with erratic power supply.

Removes larger particles, sediment, and certain microorganisms.


Limited effectiveness against dissolved impurities.

Slower filtration process compared to other technologies.

Regular maintenance and filter replacement are essential.

May not be as effective as RO or UV purifiers in waterborne disease prevention.

Comparison Table of Water Purifiers

Purifier TypeProsConsSuitable For
Reverse OsmosisHighly effective at removing contaminants.Wastful water usageHigh TDS Water
Improves taste and odor of waterRemoves essential mineralsAreas with multiple contaminants
Minimal electricity usageInitial installation costWasteful water usage
UltrafiltrationRemoves bacteria, viruses, and solidsDoes not eliminate dissolved salts.Low to moderate TDS water
Retains essential mineralsRegular membrane cleaning requiredCost-effective filtration
No electricity neededLimited effectiveness against some contaminantsPoint of use purification
UltravioletEffective against bacteria and virusesDoes not remove dissolved impuritiesDisinfection of microorganisms
No change in taste, color or odorRequires continuous power supplyLow TDS water with clarity
Environmentally friendlyPre-filtration may be necessaryPoint of use water purification
Activated CarbonImproves taste by reducing chemicals.Does not remove dissolved saltsLow TDS water with odor issues.
Removes certain organic compundsFilter replacement requiredCost effective basic purification
No Electricity required.Limited effectiveness against microbesPoint of use water purification
Gravity-BasedNo electricity or pressure requiredLimited effectiveness against dissolved impuritiesAreas with sediment issues
Cost-effective and low maintenanceslower filtration processLow TDS water with basic filtration
Removes larger particles and semimentRegular maintenance neededCost-effective basic purification


Choosing the right water purifier depends on various factors, including the quality of the water supply, the presence of specific contaminants, budget constraints, and the level of purification required.

Each type of water purifier has its own set of advantages and limitations.

Reverse osmosis purifiers excel at comprehensive purification but may remove essential minerals.

Ultraviolet purifiers are efficient at disinfection but do not remove dissolved impurities.

Ultrafiltration is effective against larger contaminants but may not be suitable for high TDS water.

Activated carbon purifiers are excellent at improving taste but do not tackle dissolved salts.

Gravity-based purifiers are affordable and effective for basic filtration but have limitations in handling dissolved impurities.

Before making a decision, it is essential to conduct a water quality analysis and consider the specific

Anurag Pathak
Anurag Pathak
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